KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程

目录
  • 1.kvm部署
    • 1.1 kvm安装
    • 1.2 kvm web管理界面安装
    • 1.3 kvm web界面管理
      • 1.3.1 kvm连接管理
      • 1.3.2 kvm存储管理
      • 1.3.3 kvm网络管理
      • 1.3.4 实例管理
  • 故障

    1.kvm部署

    1.1 kvm安装

    //关闭防火墙和selinux
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld.service 
    removed /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
    removed /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.firewalld1.service.
    [root@kvm ~]# sed -i 's/selinux=enforcing/selinux=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config 
    [root@kvm ~]# reboot
    
    //下载epel源和工具包
    [root@kvm ~]# yum -y install epel-release vim wget net-tools unzip zip gcc gcc-c++
    
    //验证cpu是否支持kvm;如果结果中有vmx(intel)或svm(amd)字样,就说明cpu的支持的
    [root@kvm ~]# egrep -o 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo
    
    //安装kvm
    [root@kvm ~]# yum -y install qemu-kvm qemu-kvm-tools qemu-img virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-install virt-viewer bridge-utils libguestfs-tools
    
    //桥接网卡,用br0来桥接ens160网卡
    [root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
    [root@kvm network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-ens33 ifcfg-br0
    [root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br0 
    type=bridge
    device=br0
    nm_controlled=no
    bootproto=static
    name=br0
    onboot=yes
    ipaddr=192.168.237.131
    netmask=255.255.255.0
    gateway=192.168.237.2
    dns1=114.114.114.114
    dns2=8.8.8.8
    [root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-ens33 
    type=ethernet
    bootproto=static
    name=ens33
    device=ens33
    onboot=yes
    bridge=br0
    nm_controlled=no
    
    //重启网络
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart network
    [root@kvm ~]# ip a
    1: lo: <loopback,up,lower_up> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state unknown group default qlen 1000
        link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
        inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    2: ens33: <broadcast,multicast,up,lower_up> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state up group default qlen 1000
        link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    3: br0: <broadcast,multicast,up,lower_up> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state up group default qlen 1000
        link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 192.168.237.131/24 brd 192.168.237.255 scope global br0
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    4: virbr0: <no-carrier,broadcast,multicast,up> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state down group default qlen 1000
        link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    5: virbr0-nic: <broadcast,multicast> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state down group default qlen 1000
        link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    
    //启动服务
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now libvirtd
    
    //验证安装结果
    [root@kvm ~]# lsmod|grep kvm
    kvm_intel             188740  0 
    kvm                   637289  1 kvm_intel
    irqbypass              13503  1 kvm
    
    //测试
    [root@kvm ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
     id    名称                         状态
    ----------------------------------------------------
    
    [root@kvm ~]# virsh --version
    4.5.0
    [root@kvm ~]# virt-install --version
    1.5.0
    [root@kvm ~]# ln -s /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
    [root@kvm ~]# ll /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
    lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 10月 20 23:14 /usr/bin/qemu-kvm -> /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm
    
    //查看网桥信息
    [root@kvm ~]# brctl show
    bridge name     bridge id               stp enabled     interfaces
    br0             8000.000c297b10a5       no              ens33
    virbr0          8000.5254001c33d6       yes             virbr0-nic
    

    1.2 kvm web管理界面安装

    kvm 的 web 管理界面是由 webvirtmgr 程序提供的。

    //安装依赖包
    [root@kvm ~]# yum -y install git python-pip libvirt-python libxml2-python python-websockify supervisor nginx python-devel
    //从github上下载webvirtmgr代码
    [root@kvm ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
    [root@kvm src]# git clone git://github.com/retspen/webvirtmgr.git
    正克隆到 'webvirtmgr'...
    remote: enumerating objects: 5614, done.
    remote: total 5614 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 5614
    接收对象中: 100% (5614/5614), 2.97 mib | 29.00 kib/s, done.
    处理 delta 中: 100% (3606/3606), done.
    //安装webvirtmgr
    [root@kvm src]# cd webvirtmgr/
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# pip install -r requirements.txt 
    collecting django==1.5.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
    downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/38/49/93511c5d3367b6b21fc2995a0e53399721afc15e4cd6eb57be879ae13ad4/django-1.5.5.tar.gz (8.1mb)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 8.1mb 49kb/s 
    ......
    //检查sqlite3是否安装
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python
    python 2.7.5 (default, nov 16 2020, 22:23:17) 
    [gcc 4.8.5 20150623 (red hat 4.8.5-44)] on linux2
    type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
    >>> import sqlite3
    >>> exit()
    //初始化账号信息
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python manage.py syncdb
    warning:root:no local_settings file found.
    creating tables ...
    creating table auth_permission
    creating table auth_group_permissions
    creating table auth_group
    creating table auth_user_groups
    creating table auth_user_user_permissions
    creating table auth_user
    creating table django_content_type
    creating table django_session
    creating table django_site
    creating table servers_compute
    creating table instance_instance
    creating table create_flavor
    you just installed django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
    would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes
    username (leave blank to use 'root'): admin
    email address: 123@qq.com
    password: 
    password (again): 
    superuser created successfully.
    installing custom sql ...
    installing indexes ...
    installed 6 object(s) from 1 fixture(s)
    //拷贝web网页至指定目录
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# mkdir /var/www
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# cp -r /usr/local/src/webvirtmgr /var/www/
    [root@kvm webvirtmgr]# chown -r nginx.nginx /var/www/webvirtmgr/
    //生成密钥
    [root@kvm ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
    generating public/private rsa key pair.
    enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
    created directory '/root/.ssh'.
    enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
    enter same passphrase again: 
    your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
    your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    the key fingerprint is:
    sha256:icylaymyxabksogsihmjqgjsby0ogfwf1p2zeipwuxy root@kvm
    the key's randomart image is:
    +---[rsa 2048]----+
    |o+ .  . . .      |
    |/ooo o . +       |
    |&*+ o .   o      |
    |x+.. = . o       |
    |=  o..* s        |
    |. . +o.e o       |
    | . .... = .      |
    |       o         |
    |      ...        |
    +----[sha256]-----+
    [root@kvm ~]# ssh-copy-id 192.168.237.131
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: info: source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
    the authenticity of host '192.168.237.131 (192.168.237.131)' can't be established.
    ecdsa key fingerprint is sha256:/ar9dyun0pn9lohywfheue5lgyczvmh9myv9+2gcabm.
    ecdsa key fingerprint is md5:30:f6:de:5a:7d:c2:08:b5:b7:31:61:4a:4e:dd:32:73.
    are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: info: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
    /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: info: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
    root@192.168.237.131's password: 
    number of key(s) added: 1
    now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.237.131'"
    and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
    //配置端口转发
    [root@kvm ~]# ssh 192.168.237.131 -l localhost:8000:localhost:8000 -l localhost:6080:localhost:60
    last login: wed oct 20 23:12:00 2021 from 192.168.237.1
    [root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
    state      recv-q send-q       local address:port                      peer address:port              
    listen     0      128              127.0.0.1:6080                                 *:*                  
    listen     0      128              127.0.0.1:8000                                 *:*                  
    listen     0      128                      *:111                                  *:*                  
    listen     0      5            192.168.122.1:53                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      128                      *:22                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      100              127.0.0.1:25                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      128                  [::1]:6080                              [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                  [::1]:8000                              [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                   [::]:111                               [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                   [::]:22                                [::]:*                  
    listen     0      100                  [::1]:25                                [::]:*                  
    //配置nginx
    [root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/nginx/
    [root@kvm nginx]# ls
    conf.d                fastcgi_params          mime.types          scgi_params           win-utf
    default.d             fastcgi_params.default  mime.types.default  scgi_params.default
    fastcgi.conf          koi-utf                 nginx.conf          uwsgi_params
    fastcgi.conf.default  koi-win                 nginx.conf.default  uwsgi_params.default
    [root@kvm nginx]# cp nginx.conf nginx.conf-bak	//备份
    [root@kvm nginx]# cat nginx.conf
    user nginx;
    worker_processes auto;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
    pid /run/nginx.pid;
    include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
    events {
    worker_connections 1024;
    }
    http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;
    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
    server {
    listen       80;
    server_name  localhost;
    include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
    location / {
    root html;
    index index.html index.htm;
    }
    error_page 404 /404.html;
    location = /40x.html {
    }
    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
    location = /50x.html {
    }
    }
    }
    [root@kvm conf.d]# pwd
    /etc/nginx/conf.d
    [root@kvm conf.d]# vi webvirtmgr.conf
    [root@kvm conf.d]# cat webvirtmgr.conf 
    server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    server_name $hostname;
    #access_log /var/log/nginx/webvirtmgr_access_log;
    location /static/ {
    root /var/www/webvirtmgr/webvirtmgr;
    expires max;
    }
    location / {
    proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
    proxy_set_header x-real-ip $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
    proxy_set_header host $host:$server_port;
    proxy_set_header x-forwarded-proto $remote_addr;
    proxy_connect_timeout 600;
    proxy_read_timeout 600;
    proxy_send_timeout 600;
    client_max_body_size 1024m;
    }
    }
    //确保bind绑定的是本机的8000端口
    [root@kvm ~]# vim /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py 
    bind = '0.0.0.0:8000'		//修改此行
    backlog = 2048
    //启动nginx
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx
    created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nginx.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service.
    [root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
    state      recv-q send-q       local address:port                      peer address:port              
    listen     0      128              127.0.0.1:6080                                 *:*                  
    listen     0      128              127.0.0.1:8000                                 *:*                  
    listen     0      128                      *:111                                  *:*                  
    listen     0      128                      *:80                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      5            192.168.122.1:53                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      128                      *:22                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      100              127.0.0.1:25                                   *:*                  
    listen     0      128                  [::1]:6080                              [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                  [::1]:8000                              [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                   [::]:111                               [::]:*                  
    listen     0      128                   [::]:22                                [::]:*                  
    listen     0      100                  [::1]:25                                [::]:*                  
    //设置supervisor
    [root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/supervisord.conf 
    #在最后添加下面的内容
    [program:webvirtmgr]
    command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/manage.py run_gunicorn -c /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
    directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
    autostart=true
    autorestart=true
    logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr.log
    log_stderr=true
    user=nginx
    [program:webvirtmgr-console]
    command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/console/webvirtmgr-console
    directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
    autostart=true
    autorestart=true
    stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr-console.log
    redirect_stderr=true
    user=nginx
    //启动supervisor
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now supervisord
    created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/supervisord.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service.
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl status supervisord
    ● supervisord.service - process monitoring and control daemon
    loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
    active: active (running) since 三 2021-10-20 23:53:33 cst; 12s ago
    process: 46734 execstart=/usr/bin/supervisord -c /etc/supervisord.conf (code=exited, status=0/success)
    main pid: 46737 (supervisord)
    //配置nginx用户
    [root@kvm ~]# su - nginx -s /bin/bash
    -bash-4.2$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
    generating public/private rsa key pair.
    enter file in which to save the key (/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa): 
    created directory '/var/lib/nginx/.ssh'.
    enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
    enter same passphrase again: 
    your identification has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.
    your public key has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    the key fingerprint is:
    sha256:s46h+cyfvcgw+6z68pxzgbknlldpdipd6lmzpopybwi nginx@kvm
    the key's randomart image is:
    +---[rsa 2048]----+
    |                 |
    |                 |
    |e..              |
    |oo+              |
    |o.o+  . s        |
    | o.o.+ * .       |
    |. =.* o *        |
    | =ox=x * o       |
    |++**%b= .        |
    +----[sha256]-----+
    -bash-4.2$ touch ~/.ssh/config && echo -e "stricthostkeychecking=no\nuserknownhostsfile=/dev/null" >> ~/.ssh/config
    -bash-4.2$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/config
    -bash-4.2$ ssh-copy-id root@192.168.237.131
    /bin/ssh-copy-id: info: source of key(s) to be installed: "/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
    /bin/ssh-copy-id: info: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
    /bin/ssh-copy-id: info: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
    warning: permanently added '192.168.237.131' (ecdsa) to the list of known hosts.
    root@192.168.237.131's password: 
    number of key(s) added: 1
    now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.237.131'"
    and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
    -bash-4.2$ exit
    登出
    [root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
    [remote libvirt ssh access]
    identity=unix-user:root
    action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
    resultany=yes
    resultinactive=yes
    resultactive=yes
    [root@kvm ~]# chown -r root.root /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart libvirtd
    

    1.3 kvm web界面管理

    通过ip地址在浏览器上访问kvm

    1.3.1 kvm连接管理

    创建ssh连接:

    1.3.2 kvm存储管理

    创建存储:

    进入存储:

    通过远程连接软件上传iso镜像文件至存储目录/var/lib/libvirt/images/

    [root@kvm ~]# ls /var/lib/libvirt/images/
    centos-8.4.2105-x86_64-dvd1.iso
    

    在 web 界面查看iso镜像是否存在

    创建系统安装镜像

    1.3.3 kvm网络管理

    添加桥接网络

    1.3.4 实例管理

    实例(虚拟机)创建

    虚拟机插入光盘

    设置在 web 上访问虚拟机的密码

    启动虚拟机

    打开控制台

    安装虚拟机

    安装完成

    故障

    web界面无法访问,命令行报错(accept: too many open files)

    对nginx进行配置
    [root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    user nginx;
    worker_processes auto;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
    pid /run/nginx.pid;
    worker_rlimit_nofile 655350;		//添加此行
    [root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx.service 
    对系统参数进行设置
    [root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/security/limits.conf
    # end of file			//添加下面两行
    * soft nofile 655350		
    * hard nofile 655350
    重启虚拟机,就能成功访问
    [root@kvm ~]# reboot
    

    以上就是kvm虚拟化安装部署及管理教程的详细内容,更多关于kvm虚拟化安装部署及管理的资料请关注www.887551.com其它相关文章!

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