Docker+DockerCompose封装web应用的方法步骤

目录
  • 技术栈
  • 后端构建 api
  • 前端构建 web
  • 网关构建 gateway
    • nginx 配置
    • dockerfile
    • lua 实现基于企业微信的网关认证
  • 使用 dockercompose 进行容器编排

    这篇文章会介绍如何将后端、前端和网关通通使用 docker 容器进行运行,并最终使用 dockercompose 进行容器编排。

    技术栈

    前端

    • react
    • ant design

    后端

    • go
    • iris

    网关

    • nginx
    • openresty
    • lua
    • 企业微信

    后端构建 api

    这里虽然我们写了 expose 4182,这个只用在测试的时候,生产环境实际上我们不会将后端接口端口进行暴露,
    而是通过容器间的网络进行互相访问,以及最终会使用 nginx 进行转发。

    from golang:1.15.5
    
    label maintainer="k8scat <k8scat@gmail.com>"
    
    expose 4182
    
    env goproxy=https://goproxy.cn,direct \
        go111module=on
    
    workdir /go/src/github.com/k8scat/containerized-app/api
    
    copy . .
    
    run go mod download && \
    go build -o api main.go && \
    chmod +x api
    
    entrypoint [ "./api" ]
    
    

    前端构建 web

    这里值得一提的是,因为前端肯定会去调用后端接口,而且这个接口地址是根据部署而改变,
    所以这里我们使用了 arg 指令进行设置后端的接口地址,这样我们只需要在构建镜像的时候传入 --build-arg react_app_base_url=https://example.com/api 就可以调整后端接口地址了,而不是去改动代码。

    还有一点,有朋友肯定会发现这里同时使用到了 entrypoint 和 cmd,这是为了可以在运行的时候调整前端的端口,但实际上我们这里没必要去调整,因为这里最终也是用 nginx 进行转发。

    from node:lts
    
    label maintainer="k8scat <k8scat@gmail.com>"
    
    workdir /web
    
    copy . .
    
    arg react_app_base_url
    
    run npm config set registry https://registry.npm.taobao.org && \
    npm install && \
    npm run build && \
    npm install -g serve
    
    entrypoint [ "serve", "-s", "build" ]
    cmd [ "-l", "3214" ]
    
    

    网关构建 gateway

    nginx 配置

    这里我们就分别设置了后端和前端的上游,然后设置 location 规则进行转发。
    这里有几个点可以说一下:

    • 通过 set_by_lua 获取容器的环境变量,最终在运行的时候通过设置 environment 设置这些环境变量,更加灵活
    • server_name 使用到了 $hostname,运行时需要设置容器的 hostname
    • ssl_certificate 和 ssl_certificate_key 不能使用变量设置
    • 加载 gateway.lua 脚本实现企业微信的网关认证
    upstream web {
        server ca-web:3214;
    }
    
    upstream api {
     server ca-api:4182;
    }
    
    server {
     set_by_lua $corp_id 'return os.getenv("corp_id")';
     set_by_lua $agent_id 'return os.getenv("agent_id")';
     set_by_lua $secret 'return os.getenv("secret")';
     set_by_lua $callback_host 'return os.getenv("callback_host")';
     set_by_lua $callback_schema 'return os.getenv("callback_schema")';
     set_by_lua $callback_uri 'return os.getenv("callback_uri")';
     set_by_lua $logout_uri 'return os.getenv("logout_uri")';
     set_by_lua $token_expires 'return os.getenv("token_expires")';
     set_by_lua $use_secure_cookie 'return os.getenv("use_secure_cookie")';
    
     listen 443 ssl http2;
     server_name $hostname;
     resolver 8.8.8.8;
     ssl_certificate /certs/cert.crt;
     ssl_certificate_key /certs/cert.key;
     ssl_session_cache shared:ssl:1m;
     ssl_session_timeout 5m;
     ssl_protocols tlsv1 tlsv1.1 tlsv1.2;
     ssl_ciphers aesgcm:high:!anull:!md5;
     ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
     lua_ssl_verify_depth 2;
        lua_ssl_trusted_certificate /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt;
    
     if ($time_iso8601 ~ "^(\d{4})-(\d{2})-(\d{2})t(\d{2})") {
      set $year $1;
      set $month $2;
      set $day $3;
     }
     access_log logs/access_$year$month$day.log main;
     error_log logs/error.log;
    
     access_by_lua_file "/usr/local/openresty/nginx/conf/gateway.lua";
    
     location ^~ /gateway {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }
    
     location ^~ /api {
            proxy_pass http://api;
            proxy_read_timeout 3600;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header x_forwarded_proto https;
            proxy_set_header x-real-ip $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header host $host;
            proxy_set_header connection "";
        }
    
     location ^~ / {
            proxy_pass http://web;
            proxy_read_timeout 3600;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header x_forwarded_proto https;
            proxy_set_header x-real-ip $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header host $host;
            proxy_set_header connection "";
        }
    
     error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
     location = /50x.html {
      root html;
     }
    }
    
    server {
     listen 80;
     server_name $hostname;
    
     location / {
      rewrite ^/(.*) https://$server_name/$1 redirect;
     }
    }
    
    

    dockerfile

    from openresty/openresty:1.19.3.1-centos
    
    label maintainer="k8scat <k8scat@gmail.com>"
    
    copy gateway.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/gateway.conf
    copy gateway.lua /usr/local/openresty/nginx/conf/gateway.lua
    copy nginx.conf /usr/local/openresty/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
    
    # install lua-resty-http
    run /usr/local/openresty/luajit/bin/luarocks install lua-resty-http
    
    

    lua 实现基于企业微信的网关认证

    这里面的一些配置参数都是通过获取 nginx 设置的变量。

    local json = require("cjson")
    local http = require("resty.http")
    
    local uri = ngx.var.uri
    local uri_args = ngx.req.get_uri_args()
    local scheme = ngx.var.scheme
    
    local corp_id = ngx.var.corp_id
    local agent_id = ngx.var.agent_id
    local secret = ngx.var.secret
    local callback_scheme = ngx.var.callback_scheme or scheme
    local callback_host = ngx.var.callback_host
    local callback_uri = ngx.var.callback_uri
    local use_secure_cookie = ngx.var.use_secure_cookie == "true" or false
    local callback_url = callback_scheme .. "://" .. callback_host .. callback_uri
    local redirect_url = callback_scheme .. "://" .. callback_host .. ngx.var.request_uri
    local logout_uri = ngx.var.logout_uri or "/logout"
    local token_expires = ngx.var.token_expires or "7200"
    token_expires = tonumber(token_expires)
    
    local function request_access_token(code)
        local request = http.new()
        request:set_timeout(7000)
        local res, err = request:request_uri("https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/gettoken", {
            method = "get",
            query = {
                corpid = corp_id,
                corpsecret = secret,
            },
            ssl_verify = true,
        })
        if not res then
            return nil, (err or "access token request failed: " .. (err or "unknown reason"))
        end
        if res.status ~= 200 then
            return nil, "received " .. res.status .. " from https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/gettoken: " .. res.body
        end
        local data = json.decode(res.body)
        if data["errcode"] ~= 0 then
            return nil, data["errmsg"]
        else
            return data["access_token"]
        end
    end
    
    local function request_user(access_token, code)
        local request = http.new()
        request:set_timeout(7000)
        local res, err = request:request_uri("https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/user/getuserinfo", {
            method = "get",
            query = {
                access_token = access_token,
                code = code,
            },
            ssl_verify = true,
        })
        if not res then
            return nil, "get profile request failed: " .. (err or "unknown reason")
        end
        if res.status ~= 200 then
            return nil, "received " .. res.status .. " from https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/user/getuserinfo"
        end
        local userinfo = json.decode(res.body)
        if userinfo["errcode"] == 0 then
            if userinfo["userid"] then
                res, err = request:request_uri("https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/user/get", {
                    method = "get",
                    query = {
                        access_token = access_token,
                        userid = userinfo["userid"],
                    },
                    ssl_verify = true,
                })
                if not res then
                    return nil, "get user request failed: " .. (err or "unknown reason")
                end
                if res.status ~= 200 then
                    return nil, "received " .. res.status .. " from https://qyapi.weixin.qq.com/cgi-bin/user/get"
                end
                local user = json.decode(res.body)
                if user["errcode"] == 0 then
                    return user
                else
                    return nil, user["errmsg"]
                end
            else
                return nil, "userid not exists"
            end
        else
            return nil, userinfo["errmsg"]
        end
    end
    
    local function is_authorized()
        local headers = ngx.req.get_headers()
        local expires = tonumber(ngx.var.cookie_oauthexpires) or 0
        local user_id = ngx.unescape_uri(ngx.var.cookie_oauthuserid or "")
        local token = ngx.var.cookie_oauthaccesstoken or ""
        if expires == 0 and headers["oauthexpires"] then
            expires = tonumber(headers["oauthexpires"])
        end
        if user_id:len() == 0 and headers["oauthuserid"] then
            user_id = headers["oauthuserid"]
        end
        if token:len() == 0 and headers["oauthaccesstoken"] then
            token = headers["oauthaccesstoken"]
        end
        local expect_token = callback_host .. user_id .. expires
        if token == expect_token and expires then
            if expires > ngx.time() then
                return true
            else
                return false
            end
        else
            return false
        end
    end
    
    local function redirect_to_auth()
        return ngx.redirect("https://open.work.weixin.qq.com/wwopen/sso/qrconnect?" .. ngx.encode_args({
            appid = corp_id,
            agentid = agent_id,
            redirect_uri = callback_url,
            state = redirect_url
        }))
    end
    
    local function authorize()
        if uri ~= callback_uri then
            return redirect_to_auth()
        end
        local code = uri_args["code"]
        if not code then
            ngx.log(ngx.err, "not received code from https://open.work.weixin.qq.com/wwopen/sso/qrconnect")
            return ngx.exit(ngx.http_forbidden)
        end
    
        local access_token, request_access_token_err = request_access_token(code)
        if not access_token then
            ngx.log(ngx.err, "got error during access token request: " .. request_access_token_err)
            return ngx.exit(ngx.http_forbidden)
        end
    
        local user, request_user_err = request_user(access_token, code)
        if not user then
            ngx.log(ngx.err, "got error during profile request: " .. request_user_err)
            return ngx.exit(ngx.http_forbidden)
        end
        ngx.log(ngx.err, "user id: " .. user["userid"])
    
        local expires = ngx.time() + token_expires
        local cookie_tail = "; version=1; path=/; max-age=" .. expires
        if use_secure_cookie then
            cookie_tail = cookie_tail .. "; secure"
        end
    
        local user_id = user["userid"]
        local user_token = callback_host .. user_id .. expires
    
        ngx.header["set-cookie"] = {
            "oauthuserid=" .. ngx.escape_uri(user_id) .. cookie_tail,
            "oauthaccesstoken=" .. ngx.escape_uri(user_token) .. cookie_tail,
            "oauthexpires=" .. expires .. cookie_tail,
        }
        return ngx.redirect(uri_args["state"])
    end
    
    local function handle_logout()
        if uri == logout_uri then
            ngx.header["set-cookie"] = "oauthaccesstoken==deleted; path=/; expires=thu, 01 jan 1970 00:00:00 gmt"
            --return ngx.redirect("/")
        end
    end
    
    handle_logout()
    if (not is_authorized()) then
        authorize()
    end
    
    

    使用 dockercompose 进行容器编排

    这里需要讲几个点:

    • 设置前端的 args 可以在前端构建时传入后端接口地址
    • 设置网关的 hostname 可以设置网关容器的 hostname
    • 设置网关的 environment 可以传入相关配置
    • 最终运行时只有网关层进行暴露端口
    version: "3.8"
    
    services:
      api:
        build: ./api
        image: ca-api:latest
        container_name: ca-api
    
      web:
        build:
          context: ./web
          args:
            react_app_base_url: https://example.com/api
        image: ca-web:latest
        container_name: ca-web
        
      gateway:
        build: ./gateway
        image: ca-gateway:latest
        hostname: example.com
        volumes:
          - ./gateway/certs/fullchain.pem:/certs/cert.crt
          - ./gateway/certs/privkey.pem:/certs/cert.key
        ports:
          - 80:80
          - 443:443
        environment:
          - corp_id=
          - agent_id=
          - secret=
          - callback_host=example.com
          - callback_schema=https
          - callback_uri=/gateway/oauth_wechat
          - logout_uri=/gateway/oauth_logout
          - token_expires=7200
          - use_secure_cookie=true
        container_name: ca-gateway

    开源代码

    github https://github.com/k8scat/containerized-app
    gitee https://gitee.com/k8scat/containerized-app

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